Not in the 18th or 19th century. No permission was required. People came and went as they pleased.
America didn’t even have a passport until 1914 Dave.
And people coming and going as they please works. It makes the host country, better off.
In Singapore, you don’t even need a passport for the first 30 days. In Dubai, 94% of the people who live there are foreign-born. Both places are rich because of re-export. Of foreigners selling to other foreigners.
The Founders got it right, embracing Freedom is worth it.