The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that with the exemptions, only 0.6 percent of farms would have to pay an estate tax. (Another 2.1 percent would file returns but would owe no taxes.) The nonpartisan Tax Policy Center estimates that only 120 farms and small business, where at least half the assets are in farm or business assets, had to pay the estate tax in 2013.
> *Only roughly 20 small business and small farm estates nationwide owed any estate tax in 2013, according to TPC. TPC’s analysis defined a small-business or small farm estate as one with more than half its value in a farm or business and with the farm or business assets valued at less than $5 million. Furthermore, TPC estimates those roughly 20 estates owed just 4.9 percent of their value in tax, on average.
> These findings are consistent with a 2005 Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study finding that of the few farm and family business estates that would owe any estate tax under the rules scheduled for 2009, the overwhelming majority would have sufficient liquid assets (such as bank accounts, stocks, bonds, and insurance) in the estate to pay the tax without having to touch the farm or business. The current estate tax rules are even more generous.
> Furthermore, special estate tax provisions — such as the option to spread payments over a 15-year period and at low interest rates — allow the few taxable estates that would face any liquidity constraints to pay the tax without selling off any farm assets.*
In 2013 only 660 decedents nationally reported owning any farm property, though 100 of those decedents have estates valued at $20,000,000 or more had an average of $5,675,730 in farm property, i.e. farm estates owned by the super wealthy.
in 2013 only 1 farm had to be sold to pay the tax, though several others had to sell off some land to pay their taxes.
55% of estate taxes were on unrealized capital gains.